Kenya is a critical hub for refugee movements from the Great Horn of Africa region. Most of these refugees live in camps in the north of the country. The Kenyan Government has repeatedly threatened to close one or more refugee camps and to relocate the refugees.
In 1992, the number of refugees in Kenya increased sharply from 15,000 to 380,000 in the course of two years.
In the following years, Kenya became the most important host country peaking at 570,000 refugees in 2011.
Regularly, the vast majority of the refugees were Somalis.
Yemen has long been and still is an important host and transit country for refugees on the way to Saudi Arabia. Since the outbreak of the Yemeni Civil War in 2012, the number of Yemenis displaced internally and externally has rapidly increased.
Along with the conflicts in Somalia, the Somali refugee population in Yemen has increased steadily. Somali refugees continuously constituted over 90% of all refugees in Yemen, rising from 60,000 in 1992 to 240,000 in 2013.
Djibouti has traditionally hosted many refugees in transit between the Great Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Since the beginning of the war in Yemen, Djibouti increasingly hosts Yemeni refugees.
Djibouti hosted a peak of 80,000 Somali refugees in 1991. Since then, numbers have declined to an average of around 20,000.