Sudan & South Sudan

Scroll down to discover how refugee movements have changed in Sudan and South Sudan.


Sudan and South Sudan are major countries of origin in the Great Horn of Africa region. Sudan’s history has been affected by internal conflicts caused by powerstruggles between the central government and the many tribes and groups in marginalized regions.

South Sudan is the youngest nation in the world. But instable power relations are the reason that it is also one of the countries with the highest rates of conflict-induced population displacement.

Death rates caused by starvation are high in both countries. This is due to natural disasters such as flood and drought in combination with various conflicts.


In 1989, the refugee population from Sudan was 450,000. After a sharp decrease, it reached 100,000 in 1991.


Between 1991 and 2006, the refugee population from Sudan increased sharply, from 100,000 to 680,000.

2006 - 2009

After the end of the Sudanese Civil War and the war with Chad, the Sudanese refugee population decreased to 380,000 in 2009. Still, many Sudanese remained displaced due to tribal conflicts and a devastating flood in 2007.

In 2011, Sudan split up into the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan.

Various conflicts led to an increase in Sudan's refugee population from 380,000 to 650,000 in 2013.

Between 2011 and 2013, the South Sudanese refugee population increased rapidly from 7,000 to 120,000. Today, this is one of the most virulent contemporary refugee crisis.

The 650,000 Sudanese refugees in 2013 obtained asylum in Chad (350,000), South Sudan (210,000), Ethiopia (33,000) and other countries (55,000).

The 120,000 South Sudanese refugees in 2013 obtained asylum in Ethiopia (73,000), Uganda (22,000), Kenya (20,000) and other countries (5,000).

In 1990, the number of foreign refugees in Sudan peaked at 1 million. Thereof, 860,000 originated in Ethiopia, 130,000 in Chad and 10,000 in other countries.

These refugees were gradually replaced by Eritreans who numbered 430,000 in 1993 and 108,000 in 2013, consistently making up around two thirds of the total foreign refugee population in Sudan.

Horn of Africa

See how refugee movements have changed in other countries

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